This was thanks to the marian reforms, although inferior in military rank and social class, which saw the centurion, superseding the tribune as the legion's most important officer. This period of reform in the roman army is often overlooked, but the invincible armies that Julius Caesar led into Gaul were the refined products of 50 years of military reforms.
Roman Standards & Standard-Bearers 1: 112 BC-AD 192 EliteOsprey Publishing #ad - The standards themselves varied greatly, flags vexilla, from the legion's Eagle and imperial portrait image to various cohort signa, and even dragon "windsocks" dracones copied from barbarian enemies and allies. This first volume of a two-part series by roman army expert, Raffaele D'Amato uses detailed color plates and the latest research to examine these vital cogs in the Roman army machine that drove its soldiers to conquer the known world.
Roman unit standards played a important role, both ceremonially and on the battlefield. With the armies of the late roman republic and early Empire continually engaged on the frontiers, the soldiers selected for the dangerous honor of carrying them were figures of particular renown and splendor. Standard-bearers wore special armor, wolves, with the heads and pelts of animals such as bears, or even lions draped over their helmets and shoulders.
Roman Heavy Cavalry 1: Cataphractarii & Clibanarii, 1st Century BC-5th Century AD EliteOsprey Publishing #ad - They became ever more important during the 3rd century wars against Parthia, both to counter their cavalry and to form a mobile strategic reserve. Displaying these impressive and imposing cavalry units using vivid specially commissioned artwork, this first book in a two part series on Roman Heavy Cavalry examines their use over the Imperial period up to the fall of Western Empire in the 5th century A.
D. They were quite distinct from conventional Roman light cavalry, and they served across the Empire, including in Britain. These troops, continued an ancient tradition of using heavy armor and long lances, both from the northern steppes and the Persian frontiers, and fought in a compact formation for maximum shock effect.
Roman Heavy Cavalry 1: Cataphractarii & Clibanarii, 1st Century BC-5th Century AD Elite #ad - From the army of marc antony in the 1st century BC, Roman generals hired Oriental heavy armored cavalry to serve in their military alongside the legions.
Roman Legionary AD 69-161 WarriorOsprey Publishing #ad - Italians were almost entirely replaced by provincial recruits, Africans and Syrians, and yet the 'Roman-ness' of these Germans, fostered in isolated fortresses on the frontiers, Pannonians, men for whom Latin was at best a second language, Spaniards, was incredibly strong. Heroic centurions continued to lead from the front, and common legionaries vied with them in displays of valour.
Reference Book. The classic battle formation that had baffled Pyrrhus and conquered Hannibal was revived. Like the italian yeomen who had battled Pyrrhus and Hannibal centuries before, the provincial legionaries were imbued with the traditional ethos of the Roman army. Despite a radical change in the makeup of the legions, the period AD 69-161 was characterised by continuity and revival.
Roman Legionary AD 69-161 Warrior #ad - Between ad 69 and 161 the composition of the Roman legions was transformed. They were highly competitive, and driven by the need to maintain and enhance their reputations for virtus, jealous of their honour, that is manly courage and excellence. Osprey warrior roman legionary AD 69-161 #166. The warfare of the period, dacia and britain, to the defence of the frontiers of Africa and Cappadocia and the savage quelling of internal revolts, from the huge legion versus legion confrontations in the Civil War of AD 69, through the campaigns of conquest in Germany, gave ample opportunity for virtus-enhancing activity.
The legions of the era may have been provincial but they were definitely Roman in organisation and ethos.
The Etruscans: 9th-2nd Centuries BC EliteOsprey Publishing #ad - They were also a great land-based power, especially in the "Classical" period, where they expanded their power north into the Po Valley and south to Latium. In the 6th century bc an etruscan dynasty ruled Rome, and their power extended southwards to the Amalfi coast. Ancient rome had deep roots in the "Villanovan" culture that we call today the Etruscans.
In 509 bc the romans rose up to expel their kings, which began the long "Etruscan twilight" when their power was squeezed by the Samnites and, most especially, the Romans. Drawing on archeological evidence including warrior tombs, paintings, and fully illustrated throughout, sculptures, this study examines one of the early rivals to Ancient Rome.
The Etruscans: 9th-2nd Centuries BC Elite #ad - Osprey warrior roman legionary AD 69-161 #166. They were a sea-faring people trading with and competing against Greek and Phoenician peoples, including the Carthaginians. Their long-lived civilization can be traced to 900--750 BC in northwest Italy. Reference Book.
Roman Legionary 58 BC-AD 69Osprey Publishing #ad - The period 31 bc-ad 43 saw the greatest expansion of the Roman Empire. The legionaries exemplified the heroic culture of the Roman world and this title takes a behind-the-scenes look at their lives, weaponry and tactics, training, including the bloody massacre of the Teutoberg forest. Reference Book. Osprey warrior roman legionary AD 69-161 #166.
Roman Legionary 58 BC-AD 69 #ad - In 31 bc octavian defeated antony at the battle of Actium and remodelled the semi-professional Roman army into a permanent force of 28 legions. Octavian became the first emperor augustus and under his leadership the legions conquered northern Spain, all Europe south of the Danube line and Germany west of the Elbe.
Reference Book. Osprey warrior roman legionary 58 BC - AD 69 #71.
Roman Legionary vs Carthaginian Warrior: Second Punic War 217-206 BC CombatOsprey Publishing #ad - Osprey warrior roman legionary 58 BC - AD 69 #71. In this study, cannae 216 bc, and ilipa 206 bc are explored in detail, the epic battles at Lake Trasimene 217 BC, supported by carefully chosen illustrations and specially commissioned full-color artwork and mapping. Reference Book. The peace that followed the first punic war was shallow and fractious, with the resumption of hostilities in 218 BC sparked by Carthaginian expansion in Iberia seeing Rome suffer some of the worst defeats in her entire history.
Roman Legionary vs Carthaginian Warrior: Second Punic War 217-206 BC Combat #ad - Improvements made to their military, however, would see Roman revenge visited on Hannibal in full measure by Scipio, who would beat him at his own game and bring Roman legions to the gates of Carthage itself. Reference Book. The carthaginian army was a composite affair primarily made up of a number of levies from Africa and around the Mediterranean augmented by mercenaries and allies, and these troops crushed the Roman heavy infantry maniples in a series of battles across Southern Europe.
Osprey warrior roman legionary AD 69-161 #166.
Roman Army Units in the Eastern Provinces 1: 31 BC-AD 195 Men-at-ArmsOsprey Publishing #ad - In these wars, roman soldiers had to fight in a range of different climates and terrains, from the deserts of the Middle East to the islands of the eastern Mediterranean. Using full-color artwork, this book examines the variation of equipment and uniforms both between different military units, and in armies stationed in different regions of the Empire.
Roman Army Units in the Eastern Provinces 1: 31 BC-AD 195 Men-at-Arms #ad - Osprey warrior roman legionary 58 BC - AD 69 #71. Reference Book. Osprey warrior roman legionary AD 69-161 #166. Between the reigns of augustus and septimius severus, the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire frequently saw brutal fighting, most notably during the conquest of Dacia by Trajan, the suppression of the Great Revolt in Judea and intermittent clashes with Rome's great rival Parthia.
Reference Book. Using evidence drawn from recent archaeological finds, it paints a vivid portrait of Roman army units in the Eastern provinces in the first two centuries of the Imperial period. Osprey.
Roman Battle Tactics 109BC-AD313 EliteOsprey Publishing #ad - The book clearly explains and illustrates the mechanics of how Roman commanders - at every level - drew up and committed their different types of troops for open-field battles. Reference Book. Used book in Good Condition. Reference Book. Covering the period of "classic" legionary warfare from the late republic to the late Western Empire, Ross Cowan uses case studies of particular battles to provide a manual on how and why the Romans almost always won, against enemies with basic equality in weapon types - giving practical reasons why the Roman Army was the Western World's outstanding military machine for 400 years.
Roman Battle Tactics 109BC-AD313 Elite #ad - Osprey. Osprey warrior roman legionary AD 69-161 #166. It includes the alternative formations used to handle different tactical problems and different types of terrain; the possibilities of ordering and controlling different deployments once battle was joined; and how all this was based on the particular strengths of the Roman soldier.
Osprey warrior roman legionary 58 BC - AD 69 #71.
Roman Republican Legionary 298-105 BC WarriorOsprey Publishing OSPWAR162 #ad - All of the mediterranean basin was now within the imperium of Rome, some of it organized into provinces governed by Roman magistrates, the rest reduced to client status. Osprey warrior roman legionary 58 BC - AD 69 #71. Introduced as part of the servian reforms, the legion had originally operated as a Greek-style phalanx, a densely packed block of citizens wealthy enough to outfit themselves with the full panoply of an armoured spearman or hoplite.
Romans were acquiring a sense that they possessed a world empire. Reference Book. In contrast to the one solid block of the phalanx, the legion was now divided into several small blocks, with spaces between them. The middle republican era opens with the last great war with the samnites Third Samnite War, 298-290 BC and closes with the Republic at the height of its imperial glory after the victory in North Africa Iugurthine War 112-105 BC.
Roman Republican Legionary 298-105 BC Warrior #ad - Osprey. Soon after the caudine forks fiasco, where roman citizens had suffered the humiliation of being forced to pass under the yoke, an act symbolising their loss of warrior status, the tactical formation adopted by the Roman army underwent a radical change. This book, will look at the recruitment now based on age and experience as well as on wealth and status, both native and foreign, training now the responsibility of the state as opposed to the individual, weapons new types being introduced, therefore, equipment ditto and experiences which included submission to a draconian regime of military discipline of the legionary at the epoch of the middle Republic.
Osprey warrior roman republican Legionary 298-105 BC #162. Reference Book.
The Bar Kokhba War AD 132-135: The last Jewish revolt against Imperial Rome CampaignOsprey Publishing #ad - During the ensuing 'bar kokhba revolt' the Second Jewish War, the Jewish rebels held their own against the crack Roman troops for four years. Reference Book. Reference Book. Used book in Good Condition. Osprey warrior roman legionary AD 69-161 #166. This fully illustrated volume explores the gripping story of the uprising, profiling its rebel leader Bar Kokhba as well as the Emperor Hadrian and his generals, and assesses the impact that this violent rebellion had on the region and those that were displaced.
The cost of this rebellion was catastrophic: hundreds of thousands of casualties, the destruction of Jerusalem as the Jewish capital and the expulsion of the Jewish community from the region, which only effectively ended with the founding of the State of Israel in 1948. Osprey warrior roman republican Legionary 298-105 BC #162.
The Bar Kokhba War AD 132-135: The last Jewish revolt against Imperial Rome Campaign #ad - Osprey warrior roman legionary 58 BC - AD 69 #71. In 132 ad, simeon bar kosiba, a rebel leader who assumed the messianic name Simon Bar Kokhba 'son of a star', led the people of Judaea and Galilee in open rebellion, aiming to oust the occupying Romans and establish their own independent Jewish state. Osprey.